All alkenes have a general formula of CnH2n (where n is the number of carbon atom, n=1 n=2 n=3). This general formula is different from alkane in terms of the number of hydrogen. Alkene molecules have two fewer hydrogen atoms than an alkane molecule with the same number of carbon atoms. The functional group of … Read more


Alkanes Alkanes are one of the four homologous series of organic chemistry. Homologous series are like families of organic compounds that have the same characteristics. A functional group is a group of atoms that gives characteristic properties of an organic compound. This is because the function group are the one that is involved in chemical … Read more

Fuels and crude oil

What is organic chemistry? It is the study of complex carbon compounds with the exception of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Examples of carbon compound are plastic, oil, nylon. Organic compounds mainly contain hydrogen and carbon and some contain oxygen and nitrogen. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that ONLY contain carbon and hydrogen. Alkane and alkene … Read more

Periodic Trends

What is the Periodic Table of Elements? The Periodic Table is an arrangement of elements in the order of increasing proton number/atomic number, which is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of the elements. As the elements move from left to right in the periodic table, the number of protons in … Read more

Answering Techniques for Redox Reaction

Often, you will see commonly asked questions that revolve around the chapter of redox reaction. The answers are somewhat standard. Therefore, I compiled a list of frequently asked questions and model answer template that you can use to answer such questions. I included essential keywords that you must memorise and write down in your answer … Read more

Redox Reaction

In this chapter of Redox Reaction, you will be learning what precisely the term ‘redox’ means. This topic is short, but a significant one because it is the foundation of more challenging topics later on. A clear understanding of this topic is needed to understand reaction mechanisms for future topics in O and A Levels. … Read more

Structures and Properties of Materials

Difference between Atoms, Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures. An element is a pure substance that contains only one type of atom. An atom is a substance cannot be split up into two or more simpler substances by chemical processes or electricity. In other words, atoms are indivisible. There are many different types of atoms, and we … Read more

Measuring Speed of Reaction

In module 6.2, you will learn to interpret data obtained from experiments concerned with speed of reaction. suggest a suitable method for investigating the effect of a given variable on the speed of a reaction. In module 6.1, we understand that the frequency of collision and the level of activation energy directly affect the speed … Read more